Back to the Basics of Teaching and Learning: Thinking the World Together
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These models are highly structured with finite goals toward specific pre-determined ends. Skinner is one of the more well know developers of behavioral techniques like his Operant Conditioning. Common features : Models usually contain common features and these may include:.
Focus is the central intent of the model. Focal components revolve around the main objective of the model. Is it the focus of the learning event to encourage learning by manipulating thought or types of thinking; growth in learning through external stimuli or rewards; social learning, or social and emotional growth through interaction; or increased levels of self-achievement and personal growth through personally directed choices? Models are usually developed with a focus, an end-game, or specific intention in mind.
Another example — in cooperative learning models the focus is on the importance of social interchange and peer support in learning new things.
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Therefore models differ one from the other in terms of their primary objective or focal point of their intended outcomes. It includes the major components and the phases of unfolding, or the sequencing of steps, and describes how the model progresses. Obviously the syntax can be quite different for each model. Principles of Reaction tell the teacher how to regard the learner and how to respond to what the learner does during the use of the model.
Often responses in using a designated model should be appropriate and selectively specific. This portion of the model alerts the teacher on how to react to the responses of the students. The Social System describes the interactions between students and teacher as each model is viewed as if it were a mini society.
Free Back To The Basics Of Teaching And Learning Thinking The World Together 2002
Since every teaching model is different, each model will have its own social system and rules of engagement. This portion concerns the interactive roles and relationships between the teacher and the student, expected norms, and which student behaviors should be rewarded. These may be overtly described or simply inferred. Depending on the philosophical orientation of the model, in some models the role of the teachers is dominant, while in others his or her role is passive.
In some models the roles center on the teacher, and in others the concentration is on the students. There are still other models that require shared roles whereby teachers and students share roles equally. In this segment both motivational strategies and tactics for engaging students could be discussed too. Support system defines the supporting conditions required to implement the model successfully. This component relates to any additional requirements beyond those generally possessed by teachers or found in schools. What requirements are needed to make this model work? Are special skills or knowledge needed; or is there special equipment, media, or learning environment requirements that need to be accessed in using this model?
This support would also include special books, films, laboratory kits, reference materials, permissions, facilities, etc. Application and effects are rather apparent — how can the students use what the model teaches? Application is the utility of the model as it can be transferred to other situations. Each model attempts to implement some change in learners and influence their thinking, feelings, social interactions, or physical movements in some way so that those changes can be transferred to other situations and experiences.
In the models these authors selected for their book they examine the individual components for each chosen model thus making it easy for readers to see how each category works. This should not diminish their effectiveness or value, but rather it is a condition of time and personal analysis. Different classifying authors see different elements.
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As I indicated earlier, many models are hybrids combining elements from varied theories of learning and this makes them more difficult to pigeon hole correctly. The listing below is not fully conclusive but places to start your searches. Readers are encouraged to seek out additional models on their own using the titles of the models as search descriptors.
Please, if you find exceptional examples, write to me so I too can add this information and we can spread the word! Personal or Personalist Models:. Social Learning Models:.
Information Processing Models: this is the fastest growing family of models. Behavioral Models:.
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I have two very strong regrets about this course. The first is that I wish it had been part of my undergraduate teacher preparation training. My other regret is that this course is not more universal in teacher training programs, or mandatory in advanced educational graduate sequences. Based on these thoughts, as a professor in teacher education I tried to bring some of the simpler models into my undergraduate classes in educational psychology.
Content in educational psychology traditionally covers the distinctive families of learning and the theories that drive them. Adding models of teaching that exemplified these theories seemed like a natural addition to the course so that students could see how theory bridged into practice. Although many of my students artfully incorporated this training into their lesson planning, I am still not wholly certain they grasped fully the importance of knowing about teaching models.
Later in my university career I also developed an online graduate class focused on the models topic. At least at the graduate level I was glad to observe that most of my students did get the importance of knowing about teaching and learning models. That noted, learning about models may be one of those topics that increases in importance and ease of acceptance and applicability as folks age in their professional wisdom and experience. This posting is an alert that many models are out there and an encouragement that as an educator you should try to find out more about them beyond this simple introduction.
There are several excellent books on models of teaching. For an overall introduction into the world of models I am partial to the one by Joyce, Weil, and Calhoun. For years, Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil have been perceived by educational leaders as paramount experts in the area of teaching and learning models. Recently they have joined with Emily Calhoun.
They all agreed this is one of those books that was a must have in their collections of professional references. In my mind that is quite an endorsement. There are also books on teaching models for special populations. Hyman, R. Ways of teaching. Lippincott Company. Joyce, B.
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Models of teaching, 8th ed. Kauchak, D. Learning and teaching: Research-based methods. Miller, J. The holistic curriculum. The Flipped Classroom. The Madeline Hunter Model. The selection, detection, connection model — An self-directed, inquiry learning model. This list is intended to merely provide examples of sites where you can find more information on models of interest. Contact Leslie.
I created the Second Principle to share information about the educational ideas at the heart of all good teaching. I am dedicated to the ideal that most of materials on this site remain free to individuals, and free of advertising. Thanks for your consideration, and blessings on your own journey. For instance in Behavioral Models students are seen as being generally passive but able to respond and to be motivated through different forms of directed stimulation. Examples of Existing Models with Their Common Family Classifications : The listing below is not fully conclusive but places to start your searches.
I have linked some examples of materials from the WWW but you too can find them using the title of the model. It is exceptionally helpful in that they have gathered links from YouTube whereby viewers can actually see examples of teachers using or demonstrating the models, or parts of models.
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There are also general teaching strategies sites that include links to both models and individual strategies. Please explore those examples for more ideas. They observe how you deal with problems as examples of ways they might solve problems themselves. Talk about problem solving. When problems arise in the room, discuss your thought processes as you work through the problem. For example, you might say, "I have a problem.
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